Record-breaking car to fire up for first time since 1962

Sunbeam 350hp | Photo courtesy the Beaulieu museum
Sunbeam 350hp | Photo courtesy the Beaulieu museum

If you happen to be in England on January 29, you might want to visit the Beaulieu, the National Motor Museum, where the engine in Sir Malcolm Campbell’s world land speed record-breaking Sunbeam 350hp will be started for the first time in more than 50 years.

In 1924, the car reached a then-record 146.16 miles per hour and then did 150.76 on the Pendine Sands beach in Wales. The car last ran in 1962, when Lord Montagu drove three laps around the track at Goodwood.

Recently, the museum’s workshop team and a group of volunteers have done a rebuild of the engine with help from the Sunbeam Talbot Darracq Register in finding parts and specialist services needed to complete the mechanical work.

The car will be started at “midday” just outside the museum entrance.

“Visitors are welcome to watch as this iconic motor is fired up,” the museum said in the news release, “but please be warned — it will make quite a noise!”

The museum is located in Brockenhurst, Hampshire, and includes more than 250 automobiles and motorcycles displayed to tell the story of the history of motoring in Britain.

 

 

Natural selection: How to choose a professional restorer for your classic

(From left)) Bobby Smith, Alan Taylor, Lance Coren | Photo by Jim Resnick
(From left)) Bobby Smith, Alan Taylor, Lance Coren | Photo by Jim Resnick

It is difficult enough boiling down your classic car obsession to a manageable, affordable group of cars. But it is just as time-intensive when you need to find the most capable and conscientious professional shop to take on your restoration work.

To that end, Russo and Steele Auctions hosted The Art of Vintage Restoration seminar during Arizona Auction Week with three noted experts: Bobby Smith, who specializes in classic Ferraris; Alan Taylor, who specializes in pre-war collectible cars; Lance Coren, official appraiser for both Ferrari North America and the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. Russo and Steele’s Drew Alcazar was moderator

“The most common mistake I see is that customers don’t have a complete game plan at the outset,” said Coren.

“That game plan should describe what you want to do with the car. Do you intend to show it at certified shows for points? That means the restoration needs to be done as more of an art piece for correctness than anything else and is a very different process with different materials and hours than for a car being primarily driven, rallied or having the family pile in for road trips.”

Having a total game plan also prevents mission creep.

Approach a restoration as a labor of love because there’s only a small chance you’ll recoup the cost.”

— Alan Taylor

Once you’ve defined the game plan for yourself, the shop you choose should agree to that plan and neither of you should deviate from it. Both parties must agree to the approximate cost and the time frame. All other details about the restoration follow that lead of overall goal and become secondary to the game plan.

Deciding on what shop to use becomes your next big question. The experts agree that you must first do your due diligence.

“Talk to previous customers, ask around at events. Simply do the research on the shop for the type of work you’re thinking about,” said Coren.

“When I visit a shop,” Smith said, “I look for three things. First, I look in the trash. If I see lots of wasted scrap metal or beer cans or materials in the garbage that really seem odd, that tells me something. Second, does the shop have the proper equipment for the type of work you’re considering? Lastly, I look for a system of parts tracking and packaging that’s organized and clearly labelled.

“You can also inspect projects in the shop. I believe in finding a shop that specializes in your type or brand of car. If you’ve got a 1964 Pontiac GTO, don’t go to a shop that specializes in 1950s and ‘60s Ferraris. They won’t know your car.”

When it comes to cost, you must be realistic.

Alan Taylor: “In today’s economy everyone should approach a restoration as a labor of love because there’s only a small chance you’ll recoup the cost upon selling the car.”

Coren agreed: “Are you in this for profit or heart? If your answer is profit, you’ll have little chance of success. If your answer is for the love of the car, the people and for the history, there’s no better hobby.”

So you think you want to go vintage racing? Here’s some advice from the experts

(From left) Mike McGovern, Chris Hines, Brian Ferrin Drew Alcazar, Lyn St. James, D. Randy Riggs | Photo by Jim Resnick
Mike McGovern, Chris Hines, Brian Ferrin Drew Alcazar, Lyn St. James, D. Randy Riggs | Photo by Jim Resnick

There are more cliches about auto racing than you can shake a stick at in a month of Sundays. But when it comes to racing classic cars – “vintage racing” is the universally accepted term – the cliches end and something religious happens.

Russo & Steele Auctions held an informative seminar on vintage racing during Arizona Auction Week, on how to get started and what to expect.

The panel of experts included: former IndyCar, IMSA and SCCA racer Lyn St. James; long-time Bob Bondurant School chief racing instructor and IMSA, NASA and NASCAR veteran Mike McGovern; D. Randy Riggs, editor-in-chief of Vintage Motorsport magazine and also an experienced racer; Brian Ferrin, who races an ex-George Follmer SCCA Trans-Am Boss 302 Mustang; Chris Hines, president of ArrowLane Racing; and Drew Alcazar, CEO of Russo and Steele and himself a vintage racer.

There’s no money, no points… It’s only about the fun.”

— Brian Ferrin

“It’s like magic,” said St. James. “When you get into a rhythm with the car and with your competitors on track it becomes one part dance, one part race, one part spiritual connection to your own racing heroes and one part illicit narcotic. It’s the thing that great musical soloists achieve at the height of their creativity. You forget all your troubles.”

“Vintage racing is not at all like racing a modern car professionally,” Ferrin added. “There’s no money, no points, lap times don’t really matter. All you get at the end of the day is a trophy and a slap on the back. Maybe a cold beer. It’s only about the fun.”

Make no mistake, however. It is still fast and still dangerous.

“Dangerous enough to be thrilling and to require a basic skill set and understanding of road racing theories and racecraft,” McGovern cautioned.

All the experts implore would-be vintage racers to attend a professional racing school such as Bondurant’s or Skip Barber’s, schools where you are taught the fundamentals of road racing, gain seat time and receive direct feedback. The best part about taking a pro course is that you’ll know with certitude if this is something you really want to do. You may find it’s not. If that’s the case, just think of the money and time you just saved yourself by taking the course.

If you do take the plunge, all experts agree you should spend more to prepare yourself as a driver than in modifying your car for greater performance. You are the biggest performance variable and will make the biggest difference when on the track, not a huge engine.

“When you’re picking a car of a particular era, speak to the people racing that vintage machine and the pro shops that maintain them, what their class is like and what it takes to maintain the vehicle,” said Riggs. “This will help determine which era is for you and hopefully your wallet can follow your heart.”

The group also agreed that you should plan for a track support crew of some sort to help with loading, tire changing and other work done at the track. These could be friends, family or a pro shop.

The group also expressed uniformity on the upside of vintage racing. Besides the fun of racing itself, the biggest plus is the camaraderie. Hanging out with other racers who you simply cannot avoid and would never choose to.

Ferrin closed: “They are simply the best people in the world.”

Acquisition enhances ClassicCars.com growth

cc-acquisition-2

ClassicCars.com, the world’s largest online marketplace devoted to classic and collector cars, has announced the acquisition of similarly named competitor ClassicCar.com and its associated websites serving Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, and Ireland. The acquisition is part of ClassicCars.com’s growth strategy to expand its customer base and content offerings while strengthening its leadership position in online classic car sales.

“Our U.S. growth has been tremendous at 129 percent year over year, and this acquisition puts us in an even better position to grow an already substantial international presence,” said Roger Falcione, president and chief executive of ClassicCars.com. “We believe 2014 is a breakout year for us and we see the ClassicCar family of properties as an important strategic asset.”

That family includes the new blog you’re reading.

ClassicCars.com attracts more than 1.6 million visitors each month (1.2 million uniques) and encompasses online listings of more than 30,000 classic and collector cars for sale with an aggregate value well in excess of $1 billion. Alexa Internet, Inc., an Amazon subsidiary that measures websites based on traffic and engagement, ranks ClassicCars.com higher than any other classic car website, including Hemmings and AutoTrader Classics.

Management and operations of the acquired website will be based out of the ClassicCars.com corporate offices in Phoenix, Arizona.

 

My Classic Car: Planet Barrett-Jackson: Ride along as RideTech’s president sells his cars at the auction

Editor’s note: Bret Voelkel, president of the well-respected automotive aftermarket air suspension systems producer RideTech, took two vehicles to Barrett-Jackson’s recent Scottsdale auction — a 1971 Pontiac GTO convertible and a 1933 Factory Five Ford hot rod. Here is his report, which we reprint with permission from his newsletter:

The GTO is on the block | Photos courtesy Ridetech
The GTO is on the block | Photos courtesy Ridetech

Planet Barrett-Jackson

The GTO sold for $62,000… ironically exactly what I was asking for it last summer. Right money in my opinion. I never did find out who bought it, but somebody emailed me a screenshot of a guy that looked like Larry Bird. Whoever it is… they got a great car.

The ’33 sold for $100,000

“Should it have brought more?”

The '33 in the staging lane
The ’33 in the staging lane

Nope. There is absolutely no more robust environment for buying or selling a car than Barrett-Jackson.

“…but you had more than that in it…”

Well, I can assure you all that the only person who cares even a little about that is me.  I don’t make money building cars… that is how I spend money. The ’33 was built for 2 reasons:

1. To demonstrate and promote our new coilover shock product line with a car that was light and competitive. Remember that “win on Sunday, sell on Monday” thingy? Mission accomplished.

2. To exercise and refine our design and fabrication talents. I think that went pretty well, too.

As a happy coincidence we were blessed with the Goodguys Autocross championship, the cover of Hotrod magazine, a 10-page article in Hotrod, winning the Optima Road America event, winning several other Autocross and road course events… and talking to a bunch of you guys who thought a road racing street rod was the coolest thing ever.

I do know who bought the ’33… He also bought  Velocity in 2011 and my blue ’56 F100 a few years back.  He understands and appreciates craftsmanship, and is willing and capable of spending his money to achieve that. He is also smart… that is why he didn’t meet my asking price last summer… he knew how narrow the market would be for that car and was willing to take his chances at Barrett (as was I). He will use and care for the car nicely.   I am very pleased he ended up with it.

A successful week? Damn right. The only success that could be bigger is the next one.

Kurt Blackgrove, Dennis Neihaus and Greg Schneider build the finest cars in the world. It continues to be an honor to work with them and to drive their creations. Now I’ll get the chance to do it all over again!

Some of you may remember my silver ’69 Mustang that I raced a few years ago. It’ll be good to get back in that car again!

Bret Voelkel, President, RideTech

Blue-chip muscle cars on the rise, seminar experts say

 

1969 COPO Camaro | Photos by Bob Golfen
1969 COPO Camaro | Photos by Bob Golfen

The rise and fall and rise again of blue-chip American muscle cars was the topic of a pair of seminars under the backdrop of Arizona classic-car auction week.

Rare and powerful muscle cars once again are hot commodities, according to the panels of classic-car experts, with the best low-production examples surging ahead in values during the past couple of years after taking a beating in the aftermath of the U.S. financial collapse of 2008.

“These are really the last of the great collectible America cars,” said Colin Comer, author and noted collector. “They are the supercharged Duesenbergs of our generation.”

The first seminar, “The Muscle Car Market – Today and Tomorrow” hosted by American Car Collector magazine and MidAmerica Motorworks at the Barrett-Jackson auction site, included the viewpoints of Comer, an ACC columnist and the author of Million Dollar Muscle Cars, who also delivered the keynote speech; B. Mitchell Carlson, ACC columnist and auction analyst; John L. Stein, ACC contributor and Corvette columnist; and Jim Pickering, ACC managing editor, who served as moderator.

The second seminar, entitled “Under the Hood of the Muscle Car Market” and sponsored by Hagerty Classic Car Insurance at the Penske Racing Museum, included Wayne Carini, veteran classic-car specialist and TV personality; Comer; Donnie Gould, president of Auctions America by RM; Ken Lingenfelter, owner of Lingenfelter Performance Engineering; Matt Stone, automotive writer and author; John Kraman, consignment director for Mecum Auctions; John Bemis, sales director for Russo and Steele auctions; and Dave Kinney, columnist and classic-car appraiser.

Prices for muscle cars were expected to be solid during the Arizona auctions, although the rising tide will not lift all boats, Comer noted. The cars with special provenance of limited production and performance, such as 1965 Shelby GT350s and 1969 Yenko Camaros, have been returning to their previous record values, but the more-common examples of Detroit muscle have remained flat.

The rising values only include those cars that have been verified as real and unaltered since leaving the factory. Comer noted. “The stuff that’s not pure, that’s not authenticated” will continue to struggle.  Resto-mods and “tributes” to famous performance cars – not to mention outright fraudulent representations – will remain flat.

Still, the prospects this year are good, said Kinney.  “I think 2014 is the year we could see a pretty strong turnaround.”

True car people are driving the market. The speculators are gone.”

— Wayne Carini

At both seminars, graphics were shown to illustrate the boost in prices for the best muscle cars since around 2011, drawn from the American Car Collector and Hagerty price guides. But they also showed those that have not recovered.  One example mentioned was the 1970 Chevelle SS 454, which plummeted in worth after 2008 and has yet to come back.

The multi-million values of 1970-era Hemi ‘Cuda and Challenger convertibles will likely never return was a consensus among the panelists.  That was an anomalous bubble pushed up by a group of investors who had cornered the market on the Plymouth and Dodge muscle cars, skewing their values until the inevitable burst, several of the experts remarked.  Buyers still shy away from high prices for those cars.

“These were a couple of guys trading baseball cards,” Comer said.

Another Mopar product that has been languishing despite rarity and uniqueness is the Plymouth Superbird/Dodge Daytona, the NASCAR homologation specials with the soaring rear wings and oddly aerodynamic noses and scoops.  Matt Stone pointed out that these were “an important part of muscle car history.”

“They have lots of wings and things, and they were built for just one thing: cheating on NASCAR ovals,” Stone said.

But the look is too controversial for many.

“I think the reason these cars don’t do better is because most guys have wives,” Comer said. “I know I would be sleeping out in the garage if I brought home one of these.

Some of the top muscle cars mentioned by the panelists that are coming back strong in the current market include:

  • 1969 Yenko Camaro
  • 1969 Camaro Z/28
  • 1967 Corvette 427
  • 1965 Mustang Shelby GT350
  • 1970 Mustang Shelby GT350
  • 1973 Pontiac Trans-AM 455 Super Duty

Some others picked by the panelists that are underpriced but could see resurgence in value are:

  • 1968-70 American Motors AMX 390
  • 1969 COPO Camaro
  • 1966-68 Shelby GT350s
  • 1957 Corvette “Airbox,” fuel injected with cold-air intake
  • 1967-68 Yenko Camaros
  • 1965 Buick Riviera GS
  • 1969 Mustang Boss 429
  • 1969 Shelby GT500
  • 1969 Ford Talladega/Mercury Cyclone Spoiler
  • 1965-66 Impala SS 396

Some other takeaways from the muscle-car seminars:

“True car people are driving the market,” Carini said. “The speculators are gone,”

“The survivor-car aspect is the most important part of the market,” Comer said. “If you have a nice original car, don’t do anything to it.”

“The cars that are moving the market today are the ones with histories that we know,” Bemis said.

“Anything with a connection with Smoky and the Bandit is hot, it’s smoking,” Stone said, referring to the Pontiac Firebird Trans Ams of the mid-to-late 1970s. “Good low-budget fun.”

And the comment that generated the most applause during the seminars: “If you’re buying a car purely for investment, you are doing the wrong thing,” Kinney said.  “Buy it because you love it.”

 

 

Insuring not just classic cars, but a future for the hobby

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Classic car restoration students learn paint techniques at McPherson College in Kansas | Photo by Larry Edsall

McKeel Hagerty is on a mission to do more than merely insure classic cars. He wants to insure the future of the classic car hobby.

He recently was speaking to a group of car collectors and reminded them that there is “that one guy who knows how to make this one thing” you need for your car.

Skills are being lost.”

— David Madeira

It doesn’t really matter what that one thing may be, he added. Too frequently, there is only one person who still knows how to make it or to fix it, and the hobby  cannot afford for that person’s knowledge to disappear when that one person dies.

“Skills are being lost,” said David Madeira, president and chief executive of the Le May — America’s Car Museum, which was host to the gathering at which Hagerty spoke during the annual Arizona Auction Week.

To keep those skills — and the classic car hobby itself — alive, Madeira and Hagerty announced that what has been known as the Collectors Foundation will be reborn as the Hagerty Education Program, a 509 (a)(3) non-profit that will be administered through the museum.

Why this change? Well, for one thing, Collectors Foundation chief executive Bob Knechel recently retired. For another, Hagerty said he has learned that while he may be able to run a for-profit insurance company, his skill is not oversight of a non-profit.

The inspiration for what became known as the Collectors Foundation was provided nearly a decade ago when car collector and comedian Jay Leno was accepting the Meguiar’s Award as classic car person of the year. Instead of telling jokes, Leno told his fellow car collectors it was time they all started giving back to the hobby, particularly by helping to educate a new generation of classic car maintenance and restoration specialists.

What started as the Hagerty Fund evolved into the Collectors Foundation, raising money to fund scholarships and to help “bring back shop class” to high schools across the country.

The alternative, Hagerty realized, would be that, “some of these arts, these skills will go away.”

In the ensuing decade, the Collectors Foundation provided help to some 2,000 young people seeking careers in classic car restoration and maintenance by funding 100 programs, 285 scholarships and 27 internships.

To launch the new initiative with the Le May, Hagerty Insurance has pledged $1.75 million during the next five years and hopes other businesses in the classic car industry will make additional significant contributions, and that individual classic car hobbyists also will make donations.

Hagerty and Madiera also announced that former Indy 500 and Le Mans racer Lyn St. James, a long-time advocate for young people — especially young women — in motorsports, in sports and in education, will serve an “ambassador” for both the renewed educational fund and for the LeMay museum itself.

“There are 22-million collector cars out there,” St. James said, adding that those cars need caretakers, not only now but for generations to come.

Arizona auctions total $248.6 million in sales, 11-percent increase vs. 2013

$8.8-million Ferrari | Photo by Larry Edsall
$8.8-million Ferrari | Photo by Larry Edsall

Editor’s  note: Throughout Arizona Auction Week, we have brought you daily results as reported to us by Hagerty Insurance, which staffs each of the venues and tracks the sales. These are raw results witnessed by Hagerty and may not include any post-sale transactions. The figures do include the buyer’s premiums.

Sunday, January 19

Overall from all auction companies

Total: $248.6M

2,321/2,815 lots sold: 82% sell-through rate

Average Sale Price: $107,096

Overall 2013 Results:

Cumulative Total: $223.9M

2,234/2,699 lots sold: 83%

Average Sale Price: $100,176

Overall Top 10 Sales:

1.       1958 Ferrari 250 GT California LWB Spyder sold for $8,800,000 (RM)
2.       1958 Ferrari 250 GT Cabriolet sold for $6,160,000 (Gooding)
3.       1997 McLaren F1 GTR Longtail Coupe sold for $5,280,000 (Gooding)
4.       1967 Chevrolet Corvette L88 Coupe sold for $3,850,000 (Barrett-Jackson)
5.       1956 Ferrari 410 Superamerica SI Coupe sold for $3,300,000 (Gooding)
6.       1951 Ferrari 212 Export Coupe sold for $3,190,000 (Bonhams)
7.       1931 Alfa Romeo 6C 1750 Gran Sport Spider sold for $3,080,000 (Bonhams)
8.       1969 Chevrolet Corvette #57 Rebel L88 Convertible sold for $2,860,000 (Barrett-Jackson)
9.       1961 Porsche 718 RS 61 Spyder sold for $2,750,000 (RM)
10.   1966 Ferrari 275 GTB/6C Coupe sold for $2,640,000 (Bonhams)

Results by auction company

Barrett-Jackson

Overall Total: $107.8M

1,381/1,388 lots sold: 99.5% sell-through rate

Average Sale Price: $78,042

Overall Top 10 Sales:

1.       1967 Chevrolet Corvette L88 Coupe sold for $3,850,000
2.       1969 Chevrolet Corvette #57 Rebel L88 Convertible sold for $2,860,000
3.       1955 Mercedes-Benz 300SL Gullwing Coupe sold for $2,090,000
4.       1998 Ferrari F300 Race Car sold for $1,870,000
5.       1963 Shelby Cooper Monaco King Cobra sold for $1,650,000
6.       1929 Duesenberg SJ Lebaron Dual Cowl Phaeton sold for $1,430,000
7.       2008 Bugatti Veyron 16.4 Base Coupe sold for $1,375,000
8.       1968 Chevrolet Corvette L88 Convertible sold for $880,000
9.       1953 Chevrolet Corvette Convertible and 2003 Chevrolet Corvette 50thAnniversary sold for $770,000 (sold as a pair)
10.   1959 Cessna L-19E Airplane and 1958 Dodge M37 Military Truck sold for $750,000 (sold as a pair)*

* Sold for charity

Sunday total: $6.2M | 131/131 lots sold: 100% sell-through rate  | Average Sale Price: $47,661

Top 5 Sunday Sales:

1.       2011 Chevrolet Camaro Coupe sold for $196,000
2.       1948 Buick Super 8 Custom Sedan sold for $165,000
3.       1968 Dodge Charger Custom Hardtop sold for $126,500
4.       1971 Chevrolet C-10 Custom Pickup sold for $110,000
4.       1956 Ford F-100 Custom Pickup sold for $110,000
4.       1944 GMC Amphibious Vehicle Dukw sold for $110,000

Overall 2013 Results:

Cumulative Total: $102.5M | 1,336/1,340 sold: 99.7% | Average Sale Price: $76,754

Bonhams

Total: $23.5M

86/101 lots sold: 85% sell-through rate

Average Sale Price: $272,890

Overall Top 10 Sales:

1.                   1951 Ferrari 212 Export Coupe sold for $3,190,000
2.                   1931 Alfa Romeo 6C 1750 Gran Sport Spider sold for $3,080,000
3.                   1966 Ferrari 275 GTB/6C Coupe sold for $2,640,000
4.                   1936 Mercedes-Benz 500K Sports Phaeton sold for $1,430,000
5.                   1961 Mercedes-Benz 300SL Roadster sold for $1,237,500
6.                   1955 Mercedes-Benz 300SL Gullwing Coupe sold for $1,078,000
7.                   1968 Ferrari 330 GTC Coupe sold for $803,000
8.                   1967 Ferrari 330 GTC Coupe sold for $660,000
9.                   1947 Bentley Mk VI Coupe sold for $605,000
10.               1935 Auburn 851 Supercharged Boattail Speedster sold for $467,500

Overall 2013 Results:

Total: $13.4M | 91/112 lots sold: 81% sell-through rate | Average Sale Price: $147,296

Gooding & Company

Total: $49.5M

110/117 lots sold: 94% sell-through rate

Average Sale Price: $449,650

Overall Top 10 Sales:

1.       1958 Ferrari 250 GT Cabriolet sold for $6,160,000
2.       1997 McLaren F1 GTR Longtail Coupe sold for $5,280,000
3.       1956 Ferrari 410 Superamerica SI Coupe sold for $3,300,000
4.       1961 Ferrari 250 GT Speciale Coupe sold for $2,365,000
5.       1929 Duesenberg Model J LeBaron Dual Cowl Phaeton sold for $2,090,000
6.       1967 Ferrari 330 GTS Spyder sold for $2,062,500
7.       1956 Mercedes-Benz 300SL Gullwing Coupe sold for $1,897,500
8.       1955 Lancia Aurelia B24 Spider America Convertible sold for $1,815,000
9.       1952 Ferrari 212 Inter Coupe sold for $1,787,500
10.   1959 Mercedes-Benz 300SL Roadster sold for $1,430,000

Overall 2013 Results:

Total: $52.6M | 101/104 lots sold: 97% sell-through rate |Average Sale Price: $520,371

RM Auctions

Total (from two-day sale ended Friday): $45.6M

108/126 lots sold: 86% sell-through rate

Average Sale Price: $421,884

Overall Top 10 Sales:

1.       1958 Ferrari 250 GT California LWB Spyder sold for $8,800,000
2.       1961 Porsche 718 RS 61 Spyder sold for $2,750,000
3.       1964 Ferrari 250 GT Lusso Coupe sold for $2,447,500
4.       1930 Duesenberg Model J Disappearing Top Convertible sold for $2,200,000
5.       1966 Ferrari 275 GTB Coupe sold for $1,815,000
6.       1995 Ferrari F50 Coupe sold for $1,650,000
7.       1966 Ferrari 275 GTS Spyder sold for $1,485,000
8.       1956 Mercedes-Benz 300SL Gullwing Coupe sold for $1,292,500
9.       1958 Mercedes-Benz 300SL Roadster sold for $1,045,000
9.       1935 Hispano-Suiza J12 Cabriolet de Ville sold for $1,045,000
 

Overall 2013 Results:

Total: $36.4M | 75/84 lots sold: 89% sell-through rate | Average Sale Price: $485,544

Russo and Steele

Overall Total: $19.0M

456/751 lots sold: 61% sell-through rate

Average Sale Price: $41,761

Overall Top 10 Sales:

1.       1966 Lamborghini 350GT Coupe sold for $742,500
2.       1963 Pontiac LeMans SD Lightweight Coupe sold for $335,500
3.       2008 Mercedes-Benz SLR Roadster sold for $308,000
4.       1971 Chevrolet Corvette SS 454 Convertible sold for $250,250
5.       1964 Porsche 356SC Cabriolet sold for $242,000
6.       2013 Dodge Viper GTS Coupe sold for $236,500
7.       1953 Chevrolet Corvette Roadster sold for $225,500
8.       1970 Ford Mustang Boss 429 Fastback sold for $220,000
9.       1941 Packard Sedan Presidential Parade Car sold for $192,500
10.   1966 Shelby GT350 Fastback sold for $187,000

Sunday total: $1.7M

108/171 lots sold: 63%

Average Sale Price: $15,762

Top 5 Sunday Sales:

1.       1961 Lincoln Continental Convertible sold for $53,350
2.       1955 Chevrolet Sedan Delivery sold for $50,050
3.       1970 Dodge Challenger Coupe sold for $49,500
4.       1939 Ford Touring Coupe sold for $47,300
5.       1966 Ford Bronco Sport Utility sold for $44,000

Overall 2013 Results:

Cumulative Total: $16.0M | 422/710 sold: 59% | Average Sale Price: $37,975

Silver Auctions

Total: $3.1M

179/331 lots sold: 54%

Average Sale Price: $17,414

Overall Top 10 Sales:

1.       1972 Jaguar E-Type SIII Convertible sold for $81,540
2.       1948 Cadillac Model 62 Convertible sold for $76,140
3.       2009 Dodge Viper Coupe sold for $71,280
4.       1958 Chevrolet Corvette Convertible sold for $70,200
5.       1963 Chevrolet Impala Hardtop Coupe sold for $69,660
6.       1956 Mercury Monterey Hardtop sold for $62,640
7.       1947 Oldsmobile Woody Station Wagon sold for $59,400
8.       1956 Chevrolet Bel Air Convertible sold for $59,400
9.       1956 Chevrolet Sedan Delivery Custom sold for $41,580
10.   1941 Ford Super Deluxe Convertible sold for $40,500

Overall 2013 Results:

Total: $2.8M | 209/349 lots sold: 60% sell-through rate | Average Sale Price: $13,628

Editor’s note (part 2): Total sales for the Arizona auctions first reached the $100-million mark in 2005 and climbed to $157 million in 2008. Then came the national economic crash. Sales rebounded to $158 million in 2011, to $185 in 2012 and topped $226 last year. 

Total sales improved by 11 percent this year compared to 2013 with the average sales price increasing by 6.9 percent.

The biggest gains were posted by Bonhams — nearly doubling 2013 sales and with an 85-percent increase in average sales price; Russo and Steele — an 18.7-percent overall sales boost, though only a 1-percent increase in average sales transaction; and Silver Auctions, increasing 10..7 percent in overall sales and 27.7 percent in average transaction price. RM also had a large overall sales increase after staging a two-day event this year and a single-day sale last year. Barrett-Jackson’s overall sales improved by more than 5 percent while Gooding & Company’s overall sales were less than a year ago.

Barrett-Jackson enjoys $51.9-million in Saturday sales

Photo by Larry Edsall
Photo by Larry Edsall

Editor’s  note: Throughout Arizona Auction Week, we’ll be bringing you daily results as reported to us by Hagerty Insurance, which staffs each of the venues and tracks the sales. These are raw results witnessed by Hagerty and may not include any post-sale transactions. The figures do include the buyer’s premiums.

Saturday, January 18

Overall from all auction companies

Cumulative Total: $239.3M

2,076/2,510 lots sold: 83% sell-through rate

Average Sale Price: $115,248

 2013 Cumulative Results Through Saturday

Cumulative Total: $216.2M

1,980/2,384 lots sold: 83% sell-through rate

Average Sale Price:  $109,177

Overall Top 10 Sales from all auctions through Saturday:

1.       1958 Ferrari 250 GT California LWB Spyder sold for $8,800,000 (RM)
2.       1958 Ferrari 250 GT Cabriolet sold for $6,160,000 (Gooding)
3.       1997 McLaren F1 GTR Longtail Coupe sold for $5,280,000 (Gooding)
4.       1967 Chevrolet Corvette L88 Coupe sold for $3,850,000 (Barrett-Jackson)
5.       1956 Ferrari 410 Superamerica SI Coupe sold for $3,300,000 (Gooding)
6.       1951 Ferrari 212 Export Coupe sold for $3,190,000 (Bonhams)
7.       1931 Alfa Romeo 6C 1750 Gran Sport Spider sold for $3,080,000 (Bonhams)
8.       1969 Chevrolet Corvette #57 Rebel L88 Convertible sold for $2,860,000 (Barrett-Jackson)
9.       1961 Porsche 718 RS 61 Spyder sold for $2,750,000 (RM)
10.   1966 Ferrari 275 GTB/6C Coupe sold for $2,640,000 (Bonhams)

Results by auction company

Barrett-Jackson

Cumulative Total through Saturday: $100.9M

1,246/1,255 lots sold: 99% sell-through rate

Average Sale Price: $80,942

Overall Top 10 Sales:

1.       1967 Chevrolet Corvette L88 Coupe sold for $3,850,000
2.       1969 Chevrolet Corvette #57 Rebel L88 Convertible sold for $2,860,000
3.       1955 Mercedes-Benz 300SL Gullwing Coupe sold for $2,090,000
4.       1998 Ferrari F300 Race Car sold for $1,870,000
5.       1963 Shelby Cooper Monaco King Cobra sold for $1,650,000
6.       1929 Duesenberg SJ Lebaron Dual Cowl Phaeton sold for $1,430,000
7.       2008 Bugatti Veyron 16.4 Base Coupe sold for $1,375,000
8.       1968 Chevrolet Corvette L88 Convertible sold for $880,000
9.       1953 Chevrolet Corvette Convertible and 2003 Chevrolet Corvette 50th Anniversary sold for $770,000 (sold as a pair)
10.   1959 Cessna L-19E Airplane and 1958 Dodge M37 Military Truck sold for $750,000 (sold as a pair)*

* Sold for charity

Saturday total: $51.9M |267/275 lots sold: 97% sell-through rate | Average Sale Price: $194,502

Top 5 Saturday Sales:

1.       1967 Chevrolet Corvette L88 Coupe sold for $3,850,000
2.       1969 Chevrolet Corvette #57 Rebel L88 Convertible sold for $2,860,000
3.       1955 Mercedes-Benz 300SL Gullwing Coupe sold for $2,090,000
4.       1998 Ferrari F300 Race Car sold for $1,870,000
5.       1963 Shelby Cooper Monaco King Cobra sold for $1,650,000

2013 Results Through Saturday

Cumulative Total: $96.6M |1,188/1,191 sold: 99.9% sell-through rate |Average Sale Price: $81,324

Bonhams

Overall total (from one-day auction ended Thursday): $23.5M

86/101 lots sold: 85% sell-through rate

Average Sale Price: $272,890

Overall Top 10 Sales:

1.                   1951 Ferrari 212 Export Coupe sold for $3,190,000
2.                   1931 Alfa Romeo 6C 1750 Gran Sport Spider sold for $3,080,000
3.                   1966 Ferrari 275 GTB/6C Coupe sold for $2,640,000
4.                   1936 Mercedes-Benz 500K Sports Phaeton sold for $1,430,000
5.                   1961 Mercedes-Benz 300SL Roadster sold for $1,237,500
6.                   1955 Mercedes-Benz 300SL Gullwing Coupe sold for $1,078,000
7.                   1968 Ferrari 330 GTC Coupe sold for $803,000
8.                   1967 Ferrari 330 GTC Coupe sold for $660,000
9.                   1947 Bentley Mk VI Coupe sold for $605,000
10.               1935 Auburn 851 Supercharged Boattail Speedster sold for $467,500

Overall 2013 Results

Total: $13.4M | 91/112 lots sold: 81% sell-through rate | Average Sale Price: $147,296

Gooding & Company

Overall Total (from two-day-auction ending Saturday): $48.9M

109/117 lots sold: 93% sell-through rate

Average Sale Price: $448,730

Overall Top 10 Sales:

1.       1958 Ferrari 250 GT Cabriolet sold for $6,160,000
2.       1997 McLaren F1 GTR Longtail Coupe sold for $5,280,000
3.       1956 Ferrari 410 Superamerica SI Coupe sold for $3,300,000
4.       1961 Ferrari 250 GT Speciale Coupe sold for $2,365,000
5.       1929 Duesenberg Model J LeBaron Dual Cowl Phaeton sold for $2,090,000
6.       1967 Ferrari 330 GTS Spyder sold for $2,062,500
7.       1956 Mercedes-Benz 300SL Gullwing Coupe sold for $1,897,500
8.       1955 Lancia Aurelia B24 Spider America Convertible sold for $1,815,000
9.       1952 Ferrari 212 Inter Coupe sold for $1,787,500
10.   1959 Mercedes-Benz 300SL Roadster sold for $1,430,000

Saturday total: $22.9M | 52/58 lots sold: 90% sell-through rate | Average Sale Price: $439,820

Top 5 Saturday Sales:

1.       1997 McLaren F1 GTR Longtail Coupe sold for $5,280,000
2.       1929 Duesenberg Model J LeBaron Dual Cowl Phaeton sold for $2,090,000
3.       1967 Ferrari 330 GTS Spyder sold for $2,062,500
4.       1955 Lancia Aurelia B24 Spider America Convertible sold for $1,815,000
5.       1952 Ferrari 212 Inter Coupe sold for $1,787,500

Overall 2013 Results

Total: $52.6M | 101/104 lots sold: 97% sell-through rate |Average Sale Price: $520,371

RM Auctions

Overall Total (from two-day sale ended Friday): $45.6M

108/126 lots sold: 86% sell-through rate

Average Sale Price: $421,884

Overall Top 10 Sales:

1.       1958 Ferrari 250 GT California LWB Spyder sold for $8,800,000
2.       1961 Porsche 718 RS 61 Spyder sold for $2,750,000
3.       1964 Ferrari 250 GT Lusso Coupe sold for $2,447,500
4.       1930 Duesenberg Model J Disappearing Top Convertible sold for $2,200,000
5.       1966 Ferrari 275 GTB Coupe sold for $1,815,000
6.       1995 Ferrari F50 Coupe sold for $1,650,000
7.       1966 Ferrari 275 GTS Spyder sold for $1,485,000
8.       1956 Mercedes-Benz 300SL Gullwing Coupe sold for $1,292,500
9.       1958 Mercedes-Benz 300SL Roadster sold for $1,045,000
9.       1935 Hispano-Suiza J12 Cabriolet de Ville sold for $1,045,000
 

Overall 2013 Results

Total: $36.4M | 75/84 lots sold: 89% sell-through rate | Average Sale Price: $485,544

Russo and Steele

Cumulative Total through Saturday: $17.3M

348/580 lots sold: 60% sell-through rate

Average Sale Price: $49,829

Overall Top 10 Sales:

1.       1966 Lamborghini 350GT Coupe sold for $742,500
2.       1963 Pontiac LeMans SD Lightweight Coupe sold for $335,500
3.       2008 Mercedes-Benz SLR Roadster sold for $308,000
4.       1971 Chevrolet Corvette SS 454 Convertible sold for $250,250
5.       1964 Porsche 356SC Cabriolet sold for $242,000
6.       2013 Dodge Viper GTS Coupe sold for $236,500
7.       1953 Chevrolet Corvette Roadster sold for $225,500
8.       1970 Ford Mustang Boss 429 Fastback sold for $220,000
9.       1941 Packard Sedan Presidential Parade Car sold for $192,500
10.   1966 Shelby GT350 Fastback sold for $187,000

Saturday total: $8.2M | 91/178 lots sold: 51% | Average Sale Price: $90,245

Top 5 Saturday Sales:

1.       1966 Lamborghini 350GT Coupe sold for $742,500
2.       1963 Pontiac LeMans SD Lightweight Coupe sold for $335,500
3.       2008 Mercedes-Benz SLR Roadster sold for $308,000
4.       1971 Chevrolet Corvette SS 454 Convertible sold for $250,250
5.       1964 Porsche 356SC Cabriolet sold for $242,000

2013 Results Through Satuday

Cumulative Total: $14.3M | 316/544 sold: 58% | Average Sale Price: $45,359

Silver Auctions

Cumulative Total (from two-day sale ending Saturday): $3.1M

179/331 lots sold: 54%

Average Sale Price: $17,414

Overall Top 10 Sales:

1.       1972 Jaguar E-Type SIII Convertible sold for $81,540
2.       1948 Cadillac Model 62 Convertible sold for $76,140
3.       2009 Dodge Viper Coupe sold for $71,280
4.       1958 Chevrolet Corvette Convertible sold for $70,200
5.       1963 Chevrolet Impala Hardtop Coupe sold for $69,660
6.       1956 Mercury Monterey Hardtop sold for $62,640
7.       1947 Oldsmobile Woody Station Wagon sold for $59,400
8.       1956 Chevrolet Bel Air Convertible sold for $59,400
9.       1956 Chevrolet Sedan Delivery Custom sold for $41,580
10.   1941 Ford Super Deluxe Convertible sold for $40,500

Saturday total: $2.0M | 107/192 lots sold: 56% | Average Sale Price: $18,814

Top 5 Saturday Sales:

1.       1972 Jaguar E-Type SIII Convertible sold for $81,540
2.       1948 Cadillac Model 62 Convertible sold for $76,140
3.       1958 Chevrolet Corvette Convertible sold for $70,200
4.       1963 Chevrolet Impala Hardtop Coupe sold for $69,660
5.       1956 Chevrolet Bel Air Convertible sold for $59,400

Overall 2013 Results

Total: $2.8M | 209/349 lots sold: 60% sell-through rate | Average Sale Price: $13,628

Editor’s note (part 2): Even with two of the sales already completed, classic car auction week in Arizona had a huge day Saturday, posting $85 million in transactions. Barrett-Jackson’s Super Saturday alone did $51.9 million in sales, with Gooding & Company at $22.9 million. Overall, 2014 sales show a 10.6-percent improvement vs. previous year totals with two auctions — Barrett-Jackson and Russo and Steele (which so far has posted a 20-percent increase compared to 2013) — continuing through Sunday.

 

Barrett-Jackson, Gooding, RM each exceed $20 million in Friday sales

rmfriday
Photo by Larry Edsall

Editor’s  note: Throughout Arizona Auction Week, we’ll be bringing you daily results as reported to us by Hagerty Insurance, which staffs each of the venues and tracks the sales. These are raw results witnessed by Hagerty and may not include any post-sale transactions. The figures do include the buyer’s premiums.

Friday January 17

Overall from all auction companies

Cumulative Total: $152.2M

1,556/1,808 lots sold: 86% sell-through rate

Average Sale Price:  $97,795

2013 Cumulative Results Through Friday

Cumulative Total: $130.8M |1,490/1,723 lots sold: 86% sell-through rate | Average Sale Price:  $87,780

 Overall Top 10 Sales from all auctions through Friday:

1.       1958 Ferrari 250 GT California LWB Spider sold for $8,800,000 (RM)
2.       1958 Ferrari 250 GT Cabriolet sold for $6,160,000 (Gooding)
3.       1956 Ferrari 410 Super America SI Coupe sold for $3,300,000 (Gooding)
4.       1951 Ferrari 212 Export Coupe sold for $3,190,000 (Bonhams)
5.       1931 Alfa Romeo 6C 1750 Gran Sport Spider sold for $3,080,000 (Bonhams)
6.       1961 Porsche 718 RS 61 Spider sold for $2,750,000 (RM)
7.       1966 Ferrari 275 GTB/6C Coupe sold for $2,640,000 (Bonhams)
8.       1964 Ferrari 250 GT Lusso Coupe sold for $2,447,500 (RM)
9.       1961 Ferrari 250 GT Speciale Coupe sold for $2,365,000 (Gooding)
10.   1930 Duesenberg Model J Murphy Convertible sold for $2,200,000 (RM)

Results by auction company

Barrett-Jackson

Cumulative Total through Friday: $49.1M

979/979 lots sold: 100% sell-through rate

Average Sale Price: $50,168

Overall Top 10 Sales:

1.       2014 Chevrolet Camaro COPO Coupe sold for $700,000*
2.       1956 Ford F-100 Custom Shelby Truck sold for $450,000*
3.       1957 Ford Thunderbird E-Bird Convertible sold for $330,000
4.       1979 Oldsmobile Cutlass Hurst Coupe sold for $270,000*
5.       1955 Ford F-100 Custom Pickup sold for $220,000
6.       2012 Ford F-350 Custom Pickup sold for $200,000*
7.       1962 Chevrolet Corvette Custom Convertible sold for $198,000
8.       2013 Ford Fusion NASCAR Race Car sold for $180,000
9.       1969 Ford Mustang Boss 429 Fastback sold for $176,000
10.   1956 Jaguar XK140 MC Drop Head Coupe sold for $165,000
10.   1960 Cadillac Custom Roadster sold for $165,000

* Sold for charity

Friday total: $22.4M | 288/288 lots sold: 100% sell-through rate | Average Sale Price: $77,872

Top 5 Friday Sales:

1.       2014 Chevrolet Camaro COPO Coupe sold for $700,000*
2.       1956 Ford F-100 Custom Shelby Truck sold for $450,000*
3.       1957 Ford Thunderbird E-Bird Convertible sold for $330,000
4.       1979 Oldsmobile Cutlass Hurst Coupe sold for $270,000*
5.       1962 Chevrolet Corvette Custom Convertible sold for $198,000

2013 Results Through Friday

Cumulative Total: $46.8M | 957/957 sold: 100% | Average Sale Price: $48,869

Bonhams

(One-day auction ended Thursday) total: $23.5M

86/101 lots sold: 85%

Average Sale Price: $272,890

Top 10  Sales:

1.                   1951 Ferrari 212 Export Coupe sold for $3,190,000
2.                   1931 Alfa Romeo 6C 1750 Gran Sport Spider sold for $3,080,000
3.                   1966 Ferrari 275 GTB/6C Coupe sold for $2,640,000
4.                   1936 Mercedes-Benz 500K Sports Phaeton sold for $1,430,000
5.                   1961 Mercedes-Benz 300SL Roadster sold for $1,237,500
6.                   1955 Mercedes-Benz 300SL Gullwing Coupe sold for $1,078,000
7.                   1968 Ferrari 330 GTC Coupe sold for $803,000
8.                   1967 Ferrari 330 GTC Coupe sold for $660,000
9.                   1947 Bentley Mk VI Coupe sold for $605,000
10.               1935 Auburn 851 Supercharged Boattail Speedster sold for $467,500

2013 Results:

Total: $13.4M | 91/112 lots sold: 81% sell-through rate | Average Sale Price:  $147,296

Gooding & Company

Friday Total: $25.9M

56/59 lots sold: 95%

Average Sale Price: $461,980

Overall Top 10 Sales:

1.       1958 Ferrari 250 GT Cabriolet sold for $6,160,000
2.       1956 Ferrari 410 Superamerica SI Coupe sold for $3,300,000
3.       1961 Ferrari 250 GT Speciale Coupe sold for $2,365,000
4.       1956 Mercedes-Benz 300SL Gullwing Coupe sold for $1,897,500
5.       1959 Mercedes-Benz 300SL Roadster sold for $1,430,000
6.       1985 Ferrari 288 GTO Coupe sold for $1,402,500
7.       1971 Ferrari 365 GTB/4 Daytona Coupe sold for $649,000
8.       1954 Alfa Romeo 1900C SS Coupe sold for $649,000
9.       1937 Hispano-Suiza K6 Coupe sold for $621,500
10.   1956 Mercedes-Benz 300Sc Coupe sold for $550,000
10.   1952 Cunningham C3 Coupe sold for $550,000

2013 Results Through Friday

Total: $28.0M | 48/49 lots sold: 98% sell-through rate  | Average Sale Price: $583,985

RM

Cumulative Total through Friday: $43.5M

106/126 lots sold: 84% sell-through rate

Average Sale Price: $410,207

Overall Top 10 Sales:

1.       1958 Ferrari 250 GT California LWB Spyder sold for $8,800,000
2.       1961 Porsche 718 RS 61 Spyder sold for $2,750,000
3.       1964 Ferrari 250 GT Lusso Coupe sold for $2,447,500
4.       1930 Duesenberg Model J Murphy Convertible sold for $2,200,000
5.       1966 Ferrari 275 GTB Coupe sold for $1,815,000
6.       1966 Ferrari 275 GTS Spyder sold for $1,485,000
7.       1956 Mercedes-Benz 300SL Gullwing Coupe sold for $1,292,500
8.       1935 Hispano-Suiza J12 Cabriolet de Ville sold for $1,045,000
9.       1958 Mercedes-Benz 300SL Roadster sold for $1,045,000
10.   1938 Bugatti Type 57 Stelvio Cabriolet sold for $962,500

Friday total: $26.4M |49/59 lots sold: 83% sell-through rate  | Average Sale Price: $537,967

Top 5 Friday Sales:

1.       1958 Ferrari 250 GT California LWB Spyder sold for $8,800,000
2.       1964 Ferrari 250 GT Lusso Coupe sold for $2,447,500
3.       1966 Ferrari 275 GTB Coupe sold for $1,815,000
4.       1966 Ferrari 275 GTS Spyder sold for $1,485,000
5.       1956 Mercedes-Benz 300SL Gullwing Coupe sold for $1,292,500

2013 Results Through Friday

Total: $36.4M |75/84 lots sold:89% sell-through rate |Average Sale Price: $485,544

Russo and Steele

Cumulative Total through Friday: $9.1M

257/403 lots sold: 64% sell-through rate

Average Sale Price: $35,518

Overall Top 10 Sales:

1.       2013 Dodge Viper GTS Custom Coupe $236,500*
2.       2009 Volvo VNL670 Custom Semi Truck sold for $165,550
3.       1968 Shelby GT500 KR Convertible sold for $134,750
4.       1964 Chevrolet Corvette Custom Roadster sold for $126,500
5.       1966 International Travelall John Wayne War Wagon sold for $112,200
6.       1968 Shelby GT500 Fastback sold for $110,000
7.       1968 Shelby GT500 KR Convertible sold for $104,500
8.       1969 Shelby GT350H Coupe sold for $101,750
9.       1932 Ford Dearborn Deuce Roadster sold for $96,800
10.   1967 Chevrolet Corvette 327/300 Coupe sold for $83,600

* Sold for charity

Friday total: $5.6M |123/189 lots sold: 65% sell-through rate | Average Sale Price: $45,858

Top 5 Friday Sales:

1.       2013 Dodge Viper GTS Custom Coupe $236,500*
2.       2009 Volvo VNL670 Custom Semi Truck sold for $165,550
3.       1964 Chevrolet Corvette Custom Roadster sold for $126,500
4.       1968 Shelby GT500 Fastback sold for $110,000
5.       1968 Shelby GT500 KR Convertible sold for $104,500

2013 Results Through Friday

Cumulative Total: $7.2M | 227/366 sold: 62% sell-through rate | Average Sale Price: $31,530

Silver

Friday Total: $1.1M

72/140 lots sold: 51% sell-through rate

Average Sale Price: $15,334

Overall Top 10 Sales:

1.       2009 Dodge Viper Coupe sold for $71,280
2.       1956 Mercury Monterey Hardtop sold for $62,640
3.       1941 Ford Super Deluxe Convertible sold for $40,500
4.       1977 Toyota Land Cruiser FJ40 SUV sold for $32,940
5.       1940 Packard 110 Sedan sold for $29,700
6.       1968 Chrysler Imperial Sedan sold for $29,700
7.       1957 Mercury Turnpike Cruiser Hardtop Coupe sold for $28,890
8.       1967 Chevrolet Nova Hardtop Coupe sold for $28,350
9.       1965 Pontiac LeMans GTO sold for $28,080
10.   1965 Chevrolet Impala SS Convertible sold for $27,000

2013 Results Through Friday

Total: $1.3M | 98/155 lots sold:63% sell-through rate  | Average Sale Price: $13,210

Editor’s note (part 2): On Thursday, Bonhams did $23.5 million in business with its one-day auction in Arizona. Friday, Gooding & Company ($28.0 million), RM ($26.4) and Barrett-Jackson ($22.4) also reached the $20-million plateau in a single day with their sales figures. Meanwhile, Russo and Steele pushed past $5 million for the day while Silver Auctions exceeded the million-dollar mark at $1.1 million. Overall, the average price of a vehicle sold at the Arizona auctions this year is 11.4-percent more than at the auctions last year. Through Friday, the average sales price had improved 16 percent at Silver and 12.6 percent at Russo and Steele compared to 2013 figures.